Just Software Solutions

Multithreading in C++0x part 1: Starting Threads

Tuesday, 10 February 2009

This is the first of a series of blog posts introducing the new C++0x thread library.

Concurrency and multithreading is all about running multiple pieces of code in parallel. If you have the hardware for it in the form of a nice shiny multi-core CPU or a multi-processor system then this code can run truly in parallel, otherwise it is interleaved by the operating system — a bit of one task, then a bit of another. This is all very well, but somehow you have to specify what code to run on all these threads.

High level constructs such as the parallel algorithms in Intel's Threading Building Blocks manage the division of code between threads for you, but we don't have any of these in C++0x. Instead, we have to manage the threads ourselves. The tool for this is std::thread.

Running a simple function on another thread

Let's start by running a simple function on another thread, which we do by constructing a new std::thread object, and passing in the function to the constructor. std::thread lives in the <thread> header, so we'd better include that first.

#include <thread>

void my_thread_func()
{}

int main()
{
    std::thread t(my_thread_func);
}

If you compile and run this little app, it won't do a lot: though it starts a new thread, the thread function is empty. Let's make it do something, such as print "hello":

#include <thread>
#include <iostream>

void my_thread_func()
{
    std::cout<<"hello"<<std::endl;
}

int main()
{
    std::thread t(my_thread_func);
}

If you compile and run this little application, what happens? Does it print hello like we wanted? Well, actually there's no telling. It might do or it might not. I ran this simple application several times on my machine, and the output was unreliable: sometimes it output "hello", with a newline; sometimes it output "hello" without a newline, and sometimes it didn't output anything. What's up with that? Surely a simple app like this ought to behave predictably?

Waiting for threads to finish

Well, actually, no, this app does not have predictable behaviour. The problem is we're not waiting for our thread to finish. When the execution reaches the end of main() the program is terminated, whatever the other threads are doing. Since thread scheduling is unpredictable, we cannot know how far the other thread has got. It might have finished, it might have output the "hello", but not processed the std::endl yet, or it might not have even started. In any case it will be abruptly stopped as the application exits.

If we want to reliably print our message, we have to ensure that our thread has finished. We do that by joining with the thread by calling the join() member function of our thread object:

#include <thread>
#include <iostream>

void my_thread_func()
{
    std::cout<<"hello"<<std::endl;
}

int main()
{
    std::thread t(my_thread_func);
    t.join();
}

Now, main() will wait for the thread to finish before exiting, and the code will output "hello" followed by a newline every time. This highlights a general point: if you want a thread to have finished by a certain point in your code you have to wait for it. As well as ensuring that threads have finished by the time the program exits, this is also important if a thread has access to local variables: we want the thread to have finished before the local variables go out of scope.

Next Time

In this article we've looked at running simple functions on a separate thread, and waiting for the thread to finish. However, when you start a thread you aren't just limited to simple functions with no arguments: in the second part of this series we will look at how to start a thread with function objects, and how to pass arguments to the thread.

Subscribe to the RSS feed RSS feed or email newsletter for this blog to be sure you don't miss the rest of the series.

Try it out

If you're using Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 or g++ 4.3 or 4.4 on Ubuntu Linux you can try out the examples from this series using our just::thread implementation of the new C++0x thread library. Get your copy today.

Multithreading in C++0x Series

Here are the posts in this series so far:

Posted by Anthony Williams
[/ threading /] permanent link
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47 Comments

Nice introduction! I am excited to learn more about std::thread&Co. Do you know what can I use until C++0x emerges? Thanks!

by Zdravko at 07:36:08 on Thursday, 12 February 2009

If you're using Microsoft Visual Studio 2008, you can use my just::thread implementation of the C++0x library --- http://www.stdthread.co.uk

A linux version is in the pipeline.
by Anthony Williams at 08:23:45 on Thursday, 12 February 2009

A few more concise articles like this and I will feel confident enough to make thread programming a part of my daily routine. Thanks

by Ganeshram Iyer at 21:48:12 on Thursday, 12 February 2009

I can't believe you expect people to pay for your std:thread implementation.

by Filbert Cray at 21:53:05 on Wednesday, 01 July 2009

hey buddy!

good job, is a nice paper!!

[]s

by Jorge Pereira at 21:15:01 on Friday, 31 July 2009

> Well, actually, no, this app does not have predictable behaviour. The problem is we're not waiting for our thread to finish. When the execution reaches the end of main() the program is terminated, whatever the other threads are doing. Since thread scheduling is unpredictable, we cannot know how far the other thread has got. It might have finished, it might have output the "hello", but not processed the std::endl yet, or it might not have even started. In any case it will be abruptly stopped as the application exits.

Hi Anthony, could you please clarify this thing? If I leave any threads running and then finish my main() function (or call std::exit()) - is it a correct program? Will its behavior be defined or undefined or unspecified?

I failed to find a clear answer in the latest draft.

Also, what do these words from the draft mean: "Terminating every thread before a call to std::exit or the exit from main is sufficient, but not necessary, to satisfy these requirements. These requirements permit thread managers as static-storage-duration objects."?

Thanks, Maxim

by Maxim Yanchenko at 04:58:39 on Friday, 11 September 2009

I get a segmentation fault.... (and even after setting ulimit to unlimited) i am still not getting a core :(

any clues ?

by Moh at 07:54:44 on Sunday, 07 February 2010

Hi Moh,

By your reference to ulimit and core dumps, I'm guessing you're using gcc on linux. In this case you need to ensure that you're using the -pthread option to gcc:

g++ -pthread -std=c++0x file.cpp

If you're using just::thread, you'll also need to ensure that you set the include path correctly, and link against the library.

by Anthony Williams at 21:13:39 on Monday, 08 February 2010

Hi Maxim,

You *can* leave a thread running and return from main or call std::exit. That in itself doesn't lead to an incorrect program. However, if you do so then you need to ensure that the threads left running do not use any objects of static storage duration that have already been destroyed. If you never use any such objects anyway then you're already safe.

As the comment in the working draft says, you can have a static object that joins with a thread in its destructor, but the thread had better not touch any static objects that have already been destroyed.

by Anthony Williams at 21:22:42 on Monday, 08 February 2010

Hi all, I start playing with Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 C++. Where is the file <thread> ?

Without it, I can't compile the example from this page.

Thanks a lot in advance, Arkady Tunik

My version details: Version 10.0.20506.1 Beta1 Microsoft .NET Framework Version 4.0 Installed Version: Professional Microsoft Silverlight Projects 2010 91605-005-5610054-60134 Microsoft Silverlight Projects 2010 Version 10.0.20506.1 Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 91605-005-5610054-60134 Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Microsoft Visual C# 2010 91605-005-5610054-60134 Microsoft Visual C# 2010 Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 91605-005-5610054-60134 Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Microsoft Visual F# 2010 91605-005-5610054-60134 Microsoft Visual F# 2010 Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Tools for the Microsoft Office system 91605-005-5610054-60134 Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Tools for the Microsoft Office system Microsoft Visual Web Developer 2010 91605-005-5610054-60134 Microsoft Visual Web Developer 2010 Workflow Designer Package 1.0 Package for WPF based Microsoft Workflow Designer

by Arkady Tunik at 10:24:51 on Saturday, 20 February 2010

Hi Arkady,

VS2010 doesn't provide any of the C++0x thread library headers. You can use the C++0x thread library with VS2008 (including the express version) by purchasing my just::thread library from http://www.stdthread.co.uk/order.html There's a 30-day money back guarantee, so you can try it absolutely risk free. V1.3.1 doesn't support VS2010, but the next release will, and you'll get a free upgrade if you buy now.

by Anthony Williams at 21:20:38 on Sunday, 21 February 2010

Install Windows8 ISO on Virtualbox and start with C++11 immediatly. Lots of fun!

by Volker Roth at 09:27:02 on Saturday, 29 October 2011

Very good tutorial. I have found one more reference for multithreading at https://www.tutorialcup.com/cplusplus/multithreading.htm

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I,m rosesharon and you can get intouch with me via rosesharon915@gmail.com

by rosesharon at 11:04:08 on Thursday, 18 October 2018

Natural herbs have cure so many illness that drugs and injection can't cure.I have seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful works they have done in peoples lives.I read people's testimonies on line on how they were cured of herpes,HIV, diabetics etc by Dr Akhigbe.herbal medicines,so I decided to contact because I know nature has the power to heal anything.I was diagnosed with HIV for the past 7 year but Dr Akhigbe cured me with his herpes and I referred my aunt and her husband to him. Immediately because they where both suffering from herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too. I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs. He is also good in curing diabetes,cancer,asthman,diarrhea,hiv/aids,impotence and other virus. Contact Dr Akhigbe on phone/WhatsApp no: +2348155080907 or email him on..drrealakhigbe@gmail.com

by laurie hughes at 02:31:41 on Friday, 19 October 2018

Having Herpes is a Terrible Experience and my Experience will help some hsv patients beware of Herbs from online doc. I was positive to the deadly virus called HERPES and i lost hope because i was out casted and rejected even by my closet friends. i searched on-line to know and enquirer about cure for HERPES and i read someone testimony on how he was cured from HSV-2 so i decided to contact the same herbalist Call Dr Edidia because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via UPS SPEED POST and it got to me after 3 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i am so happy! thats the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more can be saved just like me! and if you need his help, you can email him on dredidiaherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp +2349074505296 here is the Dr website https://dr-edidia-herbal-home.business.site/

I,m rosesharon and you can get intouch with me via rosesharon915@gmail.com

by rosesharon at 12:35:11 on Tuesday, 23 October 2018

Hello everyone, this is serious. My Brother of 39 years who has suffered of HERPES for 1 and half years has been cured by a Herbal doctor called Dr. OTUKE who uses herbal and traditional medicine to cure people. I have spent so much on my Brother's health paying hospital bills for years but no improvement. A friend told me about this herbal man who cure people with herbal medicine. He cures all sickness, diseases, viruses, and infections with his different herbal curing medicine. The result that declares my Brother Roland healed was from a hospital here in New York, And the results of the test says my brother was okay. Dr OTUKE directed that my Brother would be okay in 21 days if she uses the medicine as directed. And 21 days later, we went to confirm it from the central hospital and several test that was done says my brother is fully healed. So he was cured by this herbal doctor in 21 days. This amaze me though. I would advice everyone to meet this Dr OTUKE who made my Brother healthy again. Meet Dr OTUKE and set yourself and your love ones free. Doctor OTUKE email again is drotukeherbalhome@gmail.com call or whatsaap +2347034971061

by mariam at 23:38:21 on Sunday, 28 October 2018

Honestly speaking, getting a genuine hacker is very rare... but my classmates Corporation has assembled the finest hackers in London, Texas and mostly his Cambridge colleagues .They show proof of their authenticity. Contact them at jamiehacking99 (AT) gmail (DOT) com

by Alma Theresa at 17:30:52 on Tuesday, 30 October 2018

I was diagnosed of Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in 2015 and I have tried all possible means to get cured, i even visited Some Hospital where they gave me some drugs like Famvir, Zovirax and Valtrex which are very expensive but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from West Africa who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Simplex Virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal doctor via his email he sent me a herbal medicine through courier service, when i received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed i was totally cured of this deadly disease within 12-14 days of usage, if you are suffering of this diseases you can as well Contact this great herbal doctor via his email; dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com or whatsapp no:+2349064844957

by Andy Moore at 07:56:48 on Saturday, 03 November 2018
by todd caroline at 16:39:26 on Saturday, 03 November 2018

i am really happy that i have been cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of Dr Oduwa, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 2 years and 7 mouth without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 4days which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony should stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases so you can email him on (droduwaspellhome01@gmail.com) or you can also whatsapp him on +2348136354191 he also told me that he has cure all these diseases listed below . HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. .ALS . CANCER .HEPATITIS .HIV/AIDS HSV Thank you for your time bye

by caluss at 23:51:56 on Tuesday, 06 November 2018

I was diagnosed of herpes in 2014 and I tried all possible means to get cure but all to no avail until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from Africa who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including herpes virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal Dr. onokun and he prepare me the herbs and deliver it to me in my country and used it as prescribed, i was cured permanently of herpes virus within two weeks of usage. Thanks to Dr. Onokun herbal medicine,you can as well contact him via email: dronokunherbalcure.com or whatsapp +2349064844957

by jackson willams at 04:39:32 on Wednesday, 07 November 2018
I am really happy that i have been cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of Dr OMOLOWA, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 2 years and 7 mouth without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 4days which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases so you can e mail him on ( dr.omolowa@gmail.com) or you can also whatsapp him on +2349039377739 he also told me that he has cure for these diseases listed below . HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. .ALS . CANCER .HEPATITIS .HIV/AIDS Thank you for your time bye
by Amanda Roy at 12:19:58 on Saturday, 10 November 2018

When i first heard about herbal remedy i never believe on such word until i found dr ehi a great traditional doctor that was introduced to me by a friend that suffered from Hepatitis B and was cure with the help of this great herbal doctor (dr ehi) so i decided to contact him for help in getting rid of my families genital herpes virus 1/2 which i did and all i was told to provide was just some useful information and some materials use in preparation of the natural cure and that i did and now i am the happiest person on earth because i am writing this testimony of mine with joy and happiness in my heart to the whole world to know that natural remedy is real because i am a living testimony of dr ehi's traditional herbal cure and i want you all to contact dr ehi via his email: shomorikasolutiontemple@yahoo.com or whatsapp him 2349035080936 or visit his website: drudebhuluspellherbaltemple.webs.com am sure he will help you too.

by Meg Fullor at 20:53:19 on Friday, 16 November 2018

When i first heard about herbal remedy i never believe on such word until i found dr ehi a great traditional doctor that was introduced to me by a friend that suffered from Hepatitis B and was cure with the help of this great herbal doctor (dr ehi) so i decided to contact him for help in getting rid of my families genital herpes virus 1/2 which i did and all i was told to provide was just some useful information and some materials use in preparation of the natural cure and that i did and now i am the happiest person on earth because i am writing this testimony of mine with joy and happiness in my heart to the whole world to know that natural remedy is real because i am a living testimony of dr ehi's traditional herbal cure and i want you all to contact dr ehi via his email: shomorikasolutiontemple@yahoo.com or whatsapp him 2349035080936 or visit his website: drudebhuluspellherbaltemple.webs.com am sure he will help you too.

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by Meg Fullor at 21:17:29 on Friday, 16 November 2018

I was diagnose of Herpes 2 years ago, my family doctor told me there is no cure but it can only be controled. Ever since then i have been running heather scepter looking for a solution to my problem because i was going to lose my Job if i dont get better, until i ran into this online testimony of Mrs Stacey who have been cured of Herpes by this herbal Dr in Africa (Dr Azen), i immediately contacted him via his email (Dr.azenherbalcure02@gmail.com), to God be thy glory i bought this Herpes herbal remedy and was cured within 3 weeks of usage, at last this is a break through for all Herpes patients contact this herbal Dr via his email Dr.azenherbalcure02@gmail.com or whasapp +2348106917688

by Tamiya holmes at 18:19:19 on Thursday, 22 November 2018

Grateful to DR UDI for all his help for my life, my partner was having Herpes Simplex Virus, and we were planing on getting married, when we decided to get ourselves tested first and we found out that my Girlfriend was HSV 2 Positive, my Girlfriend was so unhappy, because this was a barrier for us to get married, so i went out to search out a remedy for my partner, and it was so surprising how DR UDI has been a blessing and healing to the masses, after reading about his work on a blog i immediately emailed him: [Drudiherbalhome@gmail .com] and he wrote back to me that my Girlfriend will be OK and that we we get married this same year, i couldn't believe it, after doing all that is needed to be done, i was surprise that after 2weeks of using his medicine my Girlfriend went to the doc and was diagnose negative. For more info contact his email (drudiherbalhome@gmail .com) or call or what-app him via +2348051243538 and you will get your illness cure.

by richard keen at 06:02:57 on Friday, 23 November 2018

I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year, I had faith in God that I would be healed someday.This disease started to circulate all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, a few weeks ago I came on search on the internet if I could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search I saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HIV and Cancer) by this Man DR OSE and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so I wrote to DR OSE telling him about my (HERPES) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later I started experiencing changes all over me as the DR assured me that I have cured, after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if I have been finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advice is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email DR OSE on( drosemusolutionhome@gmail.com sir I am indeed grateful for the help I will forever recommend you to my friends!!! with your lovely Email Address (drosemusolutionhome@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him on this number +2348108356068

by franca at 02:35:28 on Saturday, 24 November 2018

Hi everyone, I was diagnosed of herpes back in 2016 and i was also told it has no cure. I have been leaving with it since then, but i kept praying and doing everything possible to get cured, so i never stop doing research about finding a cure, i came across testimonies about people getting cured through herbal medicine and i have always believe in herbs and its medical properties, after doing so many research about it, i found DR. IFALODUN and I discovered he was a professional in herbal medication and he has also helped many people, I contacted, we talked on phone and i confirmed he was genuine. I did all what he told me to do, i received the medicine, i used it as he prescribed, and honestly i am completely cured, i went back to my doctor and my doctor confirmed it. Do not be deceived THERE IS A CURE FOR HERPES. You can contact me on whatsapp if you want to verify: +1 (442) 333 7786

He also cures diseases like:

HIV/AIDS Gonorrhea Cardiac problem HSV cure Cancer Watering sperm Womb fertilization Penis erection Witch craft attack S T D diseases Internal heat Rashes z Fibroid Low sperm count EBV.

Contact DR. IFALODUN: DRIFALODUNSOULTIONHOME@GMAIL.COM Or call or Whatsapp him {+2347085157179} Good luck

by judith benton at 12:20:00 on Saturday, 01 December 2018

My name is Clara kat, from USA, I want to testify of how i got cured from Herpes By Dr Edidia, I have been living with this disease for the past 11months, i have done all i can to cure this disease but all my efforts proved abortive until i met an old friend of mine who told me about a herbalist from Africa who cures several types of diseases such as hepatitis A B and C, Human Papillomavirus (HPV),Herpes, HIV and so many more. though i have doubt about it,I decided to give it a try when i contacted this herbalist,he helped me with the healing and send me a herbal medicine which i make use of according to his instructions and now behold the herpes is gone and i now have my life back,If you are out there living with this disease i will like you to get cure today by Contacting this great herbalist on his email: dredidiaherbalhome@gmail.com Whatsapp: +2349074505296 more info about his work https://dr-edidia-herbal-home.business.site/ http://dredidiaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ http://herbalcureforhbv.blogspot.com/

am clara kat here is my email clarakat8@gmail.com

by clara at 14:06:44 on Monday, 10 December 2018

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